Current Edition

current edition

The Pass Creek Drive

Consisting of About 100,000 Ties, Nearly to the River.

No Trouble About Dams or Headgates.

J.H. Mullison came in Monday from Pass Creek where he has been superintending the Teller tie drive of about 100,000 ties. The ties are nearly to the river, and the drive will be finished so far as the creek is concerned in a few days.

Mr. Mullison was asked about the dams and headgates in the creek and said, “There isn’t a dam in Pass Creek which can be called a dam and never was. We were careful about the headgates to the ditches and sent men along ahead to place ties across them in such a manner that they were not harmed in the slightest.

“The bridges across Pass Creek were very low, and it was necessary to prop them up to let the ties under, which interrupted the crossing as long as the ties were passing, which was about a day in most cases. The bridges were then let down, and everything was fixed securely.

“The ranchmen on the creek are perfectly satisfied, and they will tell you that if they had not seen the drive pass, they would not have known, so far as the ties damaged their ditches and headgates, that there had been a drive.”

This story came from a June 7, 1900 edition of “The Saratoga Sun.”

In contrast, an article in the May 1917 issue of the hometown weekly newspaper reads:

Tie Drive will be Late

Andrew Olson of Elk Mountain, manager of the Carbon Timber Company, spent a few days in Saratoga the first of the week, going on to Encampment Tuesday afternoon to look after the company’s property in that section and to make arrangements for the tie drive this spring.

According to Mr. Olson, there is still too much snow in the timber for his men to be able to start the drive for some time, there being as much as 10 feet in many places, and as a consequence, the drive this year will be much later than usual. There are only about 100,000 ties and timbers to be brought out this year by this company.

Records show that 1917 recorded the highest amount of snowfall in both the Sierra Madre and Medicine Bow Mountains, which resulted in the worst floods ever of the Encampment and Upper North Platte Rivers.

In the late 1890s, timber was considered a valuable resource, as noted in the rare book, “Collections of the Wyoming Historical Society” by Robert C. Morris.

The following is the second in a series about Wyoming’s wood products.

There is considerable timber, mostly yellow pine, upon the Black Hills, near the Dakota line. Measurements of the timber limits of various mountains have been made, which show the height in their respective latitudes above which coniferous trees – the hardiest of any species – will not grow. The timberline line of Mount Washburn is 9,900 feet above sea level, while the altitude of that mountain is 10,388; the timber line of Mount Hayden of the Teton range is 11,000 feet, while its altitude is 13,858 feet above the sea; the timber line of the Wood River Range is 10,160 while its general altitude is 11,500 feet above the sea.

Yellow and white pine and white spruce are the principal timbers. Many regard the yellow pine as the best and most useful tree, while others think the white spruce furnishes the best timber for all purposes. Lodgepole pine is the prevailing forest tree in a wide area along the mountain range north and south of Laramie. It is also common in the northwestern and other portions of the state. It often replaces the original growth after fires. These trees have an average growth of from eight to 12 inches in diameter but are occasionally found three to four feet in diameter and 60 to 100 feet in height. Red cedar has a scattering growth along the foothills and at lower elevation the streams are fringed with cottonwood, box-elder, willow, scrub oak and other small shrubbery.

The forestlands of the Rocky Mountains are still largely owned by the general government, and its preservation is of vital importance. The principal demands upon the forests are for the manufacture of lumber for local use and railroad ties. Also large quantities of smaller timber are used for fencing and fuel. But little if any timber is exported. The consumption of railroad ties has been estimated at 500,000 per annum, and an equal amount is used for timbering the coalmines. The native lumber is similar to the eastern spruce lumber and is suitable for all ordinary purposes in building except as a finishing lumber. It has too many knots to work smoothly, and the preference is therefore given to Oregon or eastern lumber. It is estimated that between 30 and 40 percent of all lumber used along the lines of railroad is imported and is worth, planed, from $25 to $50 per thousand. The native rough lumber is worth from $10 to $25 per thousand, according to local conditions.

Part two of Wyoming’s livestock industry, as portrayed in the 1897 publication “Collections of the Wyoming Historical Society,” is the topic of this week’s column.

The discovery of the capabilities of Wyoming for grazing purposes is said to have been accidental, and is thus described, “Early in December 1864, a government trader with a wagon train of supplies drawn by oxen was on his way west to Camp Douglas, in the Territory of Utah, but on being overtaken on the Laramie Plains, WY by an unusually severe snowstorm, he was compelled at once to go into winter quarters. He turned his cattle adrift expecting, as a matter, of course, that they would soon perish from exposure and starvation, but they remained about the camp, and as the snow was blown off the highlands, the dried grass afforded them an abundance of forage. When the spring opened, they were found to be even in better condition than when turned out to die four months previously.”

In 1869, a similar experience happened at Fort Russell, near Cheyenne, when some Texas cattle were driven there in the fall to supply beef for the garrison. They were scattered by a violent snowstorm, but in the following spring the cattle were all gathered in excellent condition. These discoveries led to the purchase of stock cattle in Texas to be matured and fattened in the northern ranges, and the trade has steadily grown to its present enormous proportions, accelerated greatly during the past 25 years by the building of railroads.

The range cattle business of the western states and territories is carried on chiefly upon the public lands. With the exception of a small percentage of lands, the title of which has been secured under the provisions of the homestead and preemption laws and desert land acts of the United States or the timber culture acts, the cattle upon the northern ranges feed upon the public lands of the United States their owners being simply tenants by sufferance upon such lands.

The managers of the transcontinental lines appear from the beginning to have regarded the cattle traffic as one of great possibilities and have pursued towards it a liberal and far sighted policy of imposing such rates as would tend to develop it.

The increase in cattle has been most rapid in the newer western states and territories. There was much dissatisfaction in recent years with the low price of cattle, which tended to a reduction in numbers in some places and in others holding for better prices has tended to increase the numbers. There is much local complaint of the combination of dealers and butchers to control prices and of the discrimination of railroad companies in freight rates. In many localities, there is a marked
improvement in the quality of the cattle, and increased interest in raising the grades. The low price of cattle for a time directed more attention to horse raising, and a marked improvement in quality was apparent. Enlarged demand for draught horses was caused by activity in railroad building a few years ago, and the heavy traffic carried on in cities, but during recent years the demand for horses has greatly fallen off, owing to the use of electric cars and other causes. This has had the effect of making the business of horse raising unprofitable for some years.

The low price of wool has kept the sheep industry under a cloud, but at the same time there has been a steady expansion of the business, the number of sheep having increased from 308,997 in 1886, to 1,3088,063 in 1896.

In our attempt at continuing education of the Cowboy State, we offer the following historic information concerning timber in Wyoming in 1897 as noted in the rare book, “Collections of the Wyoming Historical Society” by Robert C. Morris.

Timber

The timber area of Wyoming has been variously estimated from 7,000,000 to 15,000,000 acres, a variation probably owing to the fact that the sparsely timbered land has been included in the larger estimate. A recent estimate of the forest area of Wyoming is given in the government reports as 7,718,400 acres, or 12,060 square miles.

The several species comprising as far as known, the forest flora of Wyoming, are named in the following list:

Yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa, Dougl.),

White pine (Pinus flexilis, James),

Black, or lodge-pole pine (P. Murrayana, Balfour),

Pinon, or nut pine (Pinus edulis, Engelm.),

White spruce (Picea Engelmanni, Engelm.),

Blue (or white) spruce (Picea pungens, Engelm.),

Black spruce (Picea nigra, Link.),

Red fir (Pseudotsuga Douglassi, Carr.),

Balsam (Abies balsamea, Mill),

Red cedar (Juniperus Virginiana, L.),

Cotton-wood (Populous monilifera, Ait.),

Cotton-wood (Populous angustifolia, James),

Aspen (Populous tremuloides, Michx.),

Willow (Salix longifolia, Muhl.),

Green ash (Fraxinus viridis, Michx.),

Box-elder (Nugundo aceroides, Moench.),

Scrub oak (Quescus undulata, Torr.),

Mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius, Nutt.),

Mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus parvifolius, Nutt.),

Wild plum (Prunus Americana, Marsh),

Wild plum (Prunus Pennsylvanica, L. f),

Black birch (Betula occidentalis, Hook.) and

Iron-wood.

Writer’s note – Being basically lazy, we didn’t check out the scientific names, or spelling, of the trees. We leave that to our “intellectual” readers. – D.P.

The forests of Wyoming are confined mainly to the mountain ranges, between 4,500 and 10,000 feet above the sea level. Some of them are of wide extent and the timber quite dense and heavy. The best timber is found in the southern part of the Big Horn Mountains, the central portion of the Laramie range, Medicine Bow and Sierra Madre Mountains and the northern spurs of the Uintah range, which extend from Utah into southern Wyoming. The Shoshone, Teton and Snake River ranges also bear quite heavy forests. The timber upon the eastern extension of the Sweetwater range and western portion of the Rattlesnake Mountains is light and scattering. The widest timber area is in the northwestern part of the state, covering the Wind River, Shoshone and other mountains of the main range, including the groups of Yellowstone Park.

There is considerable timber, . . .. Quit chopping and don’t fell another tree until we write again.

Wyoming’s livestock industry, as portrayed in the 1897 publication “Collections of the Wyoming Historical Society,” is the topic of this week’s column. Robert C. Morris writes:

The people of Wyoming having been made secure form the depredations of wild Indians, the development of the Territory in the direction of stock raising was very rapid. The railroad running through the southern border of Wyoming, afforded quick transportation of cattle to the east. It had been demonstrated that herds of Texas cattle driven into Wyoming not only lived through the winter but showed a hardiness and increase of weight in the spring greater than would have been looked for if they had remained in the ranges from which they were taken. As the knowledge of the advantages possessed by Wyoming for conducting the business, such as exemption from cattle diseases, security from hostile Indians, the certainty of grass at all seasons of the year and the low rates to market, became known, capital was largely attracted for investment. Previous to 1882, for several years, the price of beef advanced steadily in the eastern markers, and as a consequence, the business of that year was characterized by numerous sales of herds on the range at prices never before known in Wyoming. The men who had ventured in the business were richly rewarded for their enterprise.

Changes in the methods of conducting the business have gradually taken place. The first herds driven into the Territory were composed almost entirely of young steers, and the profit in grazing them accrued simply from the increase in flesh. Later a large proportion of cows were brought in with the increasing herds, and calves were raised on the range. Next the introduction of bulls of high grade prompted owners, desirous of preventing them from roaming with cows other than those in their own herd, to erect fences, usually of barbed wire, on that part of the range near the location of their ranches.

Finally stockmen have taken up land under the United States land laws, fenced it in and are raising cattle precisely on the plan adopted east of the Missouri River, excepting that instead of feeding their cattle corn they are fed hay. Large numbers of Wyoming cattle are now annually feed corn in Nebraska before they are sent to market. The greater part of the cattle, however, are still raised on what is termed the range system. Under it a herd of bulls, steers, cows and calves are permitted by their owner to roam at will over the plains.

The portion of the United States now extensively devoted to grazing, and commonly known as the range and ranch cattle area, is estimated by the government reports to embrace 1,365,000 square miles and over 40 percent of the total area of the United States, exclusive of Alaska. The country situated between the Mississippi River and the Pacific coast and elevated more than 3,000 feet above the level of the sea, is known as the great dry area of the interior and corresponds with the range and cattle area above described. By virtue of its characteristics of soil, rainfall, elevation and natural food supply, this comparatively dry area is especially adapted to pastoral pursuits. The mean annual rainfall of this area is, however, much greater than was supposed before scientific record was kept of the total amount of precipitation. The term “range and ranch cattle” applies to cattle that, from the time they are dropped, seek their own food, water and shelter, as did the buffalo and antelope and which are subject only to the restraints of being gathered for branding or shipment for beef.

The discovery of the capabilities of Wyoming for grazing purpose is said to have been accidental and is thus described: ... but then that’s something for us to chew on next time.