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Cheyenne – This session, the Wyoming Legislature considered and passed House Bill 230, Hemp farming, which was sponsored by Rep. Bunky Loucks of Casper.

“In the 2014 Farm Bill, Congress included a provision that, if states wanted, they could allow their farmers to grow hemp by passing legislation to do so through a University or Department of Agriculture,” says Ron Rabou, a farmer and lobbyist from Albin.

However, Rabou also notes that farmers shouldn’t try to purchase hemp seed this year.

“It’s going to take a couple of years to get this program going,” he says.

Growing hemp in Wyoming

Rabou got involved in advocating for hemp production when one of his landlords, Deb Palm Egle and her son Josh approached him.

He says, “Deb and Josh are very knowledgeable and got the bill going, and I came on board with this effort to help lobby and communicate the message about hemp to lawmakers.”

For Rabou, it was important to clearly distinguish hemp as a commodity crop and avoid misinformation about the product.

“I think a lot of people get scared when we bring up the word hemp because they associate it with marijuana,” Rabou says. “They are not the same crop, and a lot of that fear is based on misinformation.”

“The bill came out of the Judiciary Committee on the House side unanimously, and it passed third reading in the House 52-6. We saw widespread support in the House,” he explains.

On the Senate side, however, opposition nearly stalled the bill in committee, until it was re-referred from Senate Judiciary to Senate Transportation.

“The bill passed out of the Senate Transportation Committee without opposition, and then with a couple of amendments, it passed the Senate on third reading 22-6.  Sen. Curt Meier was a real champion of the bill for us on the Senate side,” Rabou explains. “Gov. Mead has indicated that he will sign the bill but, as of this date, has not done so yet.”

Thus far, 32 states have passed legislation allowing farmers to grow the crop.

Regulation

Rabou explains that regulation of hemp started in the 1930s when it was lumped in to the Marijuana Act of 1937.

“Hemp was unrightfully smeared because it got lumped in with marijuana,” he says. “Hemp is a cousin of marijuana, but it has no properties as a drug.”

“People are starting to realize that hemp has extreme value as a commodity, just like corn, wheat and oats,” Rabou adds.

Under the House Bill 230, passed by the Wyoming Legislature at the beginning of March, hemp will still be regulated by the Wyoming Department of Agriculture (WDA).

“They delayed the bill so the WDA has until July 1, 2018 to put together the permitting process and rules,” he adds. “The first hemp crops won’t be able to be planted until 2019.”

“It’s going to take WDA a couple of years to get the program going because they have a lot of permitting to go through with the Feds,” continues Rabou. “WDA also has to also establish rules for the program.”

Additionally, facilities to test hemp for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration will also be important. Regulations require THC to be no higher than 0.3 percent in hemp.

Rabou also notes that the time is necessary to make sure all permitting and rules are done correctly.

“We can’t do this half way,” he comments. “This process needs to be 100 percent correct.”

Among the provisions inserted in the bill, Rabou explains that there was cooperation with law enforcement and others to insert language that will provide protection for both law enforcement and producers.

When the process is complete, growers will have to be certified and regulated.

“There will still be a lot of regulation in place for growing hemp,” Rabou says.

Opportunity

The chance to grow hemp in Wyoming is one that Rabou calls a tremendous opportunity.

“Right now, in production agriculture, things are pretty grim,” he says. “Commodities aren’t worth as much, and hemp provides us an opportunity to grow the economy.”

The crop can be grown in all 50 states and requires little water. It is a short-season crop that is prolific and withstands stress well.

“There is no tree or plant species on earth that has the commercial, economic and environmental potential that hemp has,” Rabou continues. “The U.S. is the only industrialized nation in the world that will not allow its farmers to grow hemp, yet we are the largest consumer and industrial market for hemp products.”

He comments, “Hemp is a huge way for Wyoming farmers to diversify the economy in our state, and it provides other opportunities for business as well.”

Associated industries

With hemp production, Rabou notes that there are opportunities for manufacturing of hemp products to come into the state, as well.

“Between 25,000 and 30,000 products can be made out of hemp,” he says.

Hemp is used for food and as a fiber source.

“As food, hemp is amazing,” Rabou comments. “It has more essential fatty acids than any other food source, and it’s second only to soybeans as a plant protein source. It’s also more digestible than soy.”

The crop is used in products as wide ranging as plastics to car panels and construction materials to clothing.  Anything that can be made out of timber or fossil fuels can be made with hemp.

“Because of the biomass it creates, hemp can also be used to support U.S. energy needs because it can be converted into biofuel,” he notes.

Economics

Rabou says that research has shown a return of three to 3.5 times above that of soybeans can be made by raising hemp.

For the most economic production, he says that a processing facility within 100 miles of where the crop is grown is necessary, which provides opportunity for other industries in the state, as well.

“My point is, hemp diversifies the economy – for agriculture and for other industries, too,” Rabou says. “New industries for our state can help to alleviate some of the budget crisis that we’re seeing. The enormous potential this crop has for farms, the Wyoming ag industry and for our economy in general makes it a win-win situation.”

Saige Albert is managing editor of the Wyoming Livestock Roundup. Send comments on this article to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

As part of the USDA Specialty Crops Block Grant, the state of Wyoming awards grants each year to fund projects that enhance the competitiveness of specialty crops in Wyoming by increasing the production and consumption of fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, honey, horticulture and floriculture.

“We receive funds from the USDA Specialty Crop Block Grant Program, and we develop a state plan. Part of that state plan is providing sub-grants to various institutions, non-profits and producers who will carry out the projects that will enhance specialty crops,” explains Ted Craig, agriculture grants manager at the Wyoming Department of Agriculture (WDA).

Program application

The grant program began in 2008, and nearly 75 awards have been given to projects throughout the state. About 10 additional grants are expected to be awarded this year.

“We typically receive between 20 and 30 applications, so chances of being successful are pretty good for those who have a good project and write a good grant,” notes Craig. “Depending on the year, there is a 30 to 50 percent chance of receiving a grant, which, in the grant world, is very favorable.”

Those who are interested in applying can find this year’s application and a grant manual at the WDA website. Craig suggests going through the manual first to make sure that a proposed project meets all of the eligibility criteria.

“There are specific outcomes and indicators defined by USDA, as to what they want to see in a grant application,” he says.

Review

Once applications are received, a WDA review committee evaluates the proposed projects. The committee is made up of a wide range of experts from agricultural, business and grant management backgrounds.

“Each project should have a hook or a reason why our reviewers might want to fund them. It’s a competitive grant program, so applicants also have to have a project that will enhance specialty crops. It’s not for somebody wanting a grant to start or expand a business,” Craig comments.

He also recommends speaking with an experienced grant writer, such as a researcher from a university, college or non-profit, who knows how to present information in a persuasive and cohesive way.

“An applicant should not just say they are going to do their project and the outcome is to make more money and feed their family. That’s not what it’s all about. There have to be multiple impacts that somehow benefit other producers or consumers,” he comments.

Accepted proposals

Once accepted, a project has up to three years to be completed. Recipients are required to submit simple quarterly reports, detailed annual reports and a final report describing the project’s outcomes and benefits.

The Wyoming Community Network is one non-profit that has submitted several successful grant applications. They used the money to provide small grants up to $3,500 to schools, non-profits and producers for building high tunnels throughout Wyoming.

“That program, along with a high tunnel workshop, was responsible for over 100 high tunnels being built in the state. Those high tunnels are being used as outdoor classrooms in schools and at after school programs for 4-H and Boys and Girls Clubs, as well as for Master Gardeners and community gardens,” Craig explains.

Other projects

Many other projects are also happening, including research that is evaluating goji berries as potential high-value crops for Wyoming, increasing pollinator habitat and developing a resource guide for specialty crop producers.

One project is investigating good handling practices for raw honey, which crystalizes easily and can burn if it is heated too quickly.

“They are looking at a low and slow honey liquefaction in the packaging of raw honey, with the focus on preserving quality, nutrition and flavor,” Craig says.

The viability of high-altitude hazelnuts is being studied with funds from a specialty crops grant, and a group in Albany County is using funds to create a specialty crop garden to increase the availability of fresh fruits and vegetables to help food-insecure families.

Wyoming apples

At the Sinks Canyon Lodge near Lander, a group is saving apple trees that were planted nearly 100 years ago on the old University of Wyoming (UW) research station. They are taking cuttings from remaining trees and grafting them to new rootstock.

“The project is trying to make sure we don’t lose the old varieties that survived there after research at the station was discontinued. They also plan on adding some other apple tree varieties, grafted from heirloom varieties found in orchards around the state,” he explains.

In a separate project, UW’s Steve Miller is collecting information and scion woodcuttings to preserve apple genetics from around Wyoming.

“If we grow an apple tree from seed, it’s unique in its characteristics from every other apple tree. There are only a few types of apples available in the grocery store of the 2,500 varieties growing in the U.S. Many of these can be found in old orchards and on pioneer homesteads,” remarks Craig.

Additional benefits

Colorado State University developed a nitrogen bio-fertilizer using cyanobacteria, and a group in Wyoming is using grant money to investigate the success of that bio-fertilizer production system. Scientists hope that it can be used in organic production where fish emulsion or blood meal are used for nitrogen.

“There are also some Farm-to-School mini grants from funds we awarded last year to the Department of Education. They turn around and give mini grants to schools to purchase vertical tower growing kits or build small school gardens,” he adds.

Research on fenugreek, which can increase lactation in livestock and humans, hops variety trials in the Big Horn Basin and the Junior Master Gardeners program are additional projects benefiting from specialty crop funds.

“It’s been a very successful program in terms of promoting specialty crops in Wyoming. We’re seeing more specialty crop producers. Many of them are small, concentrating on crops such as tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers and salad greens sold directly to the consumer, but we have other specialty crops like dry beans, sweet corn, chickpeas, confectionary sunflowers and potatoes that are grown on a larger scale,” he comments.

The deadline for this year’s applications is May 2.

Natasha Wheeler is editor of the Wyoming Livestock Roundup and can be contacted at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Powell – “The most beneficial part of sainfoin is that you can graze it at any time, without the threat of bloating your cattle,” says Mark Schneider, a Powell area cattle producer and a grower of sainfoin seed.
    Schneider and his family own and operate Big Horn Sainfoin Seed Company in Park County.
    “It requires no fertilizer and requires less water than alfalfa, so you can plant it on natural grazing lands and it will grow in harsh conditions,” he continues. “The protein is comparable to alfalfa, and when you put it up for hay, sometimes the tonnage yield out-produces alfalfa.”
     Schneider says he became interested in sainfoin years ago, when the crop still had a bad name because if it was over-watered it would die, and the right inoculants weren’t available to combat root rot, which he says would “take it right out.”
    “Today, they have figured out technologies for an inoculant that works, so we became seriously interested in the crop about eight years ago,” says Schneider. “We bought some from a guy in Montana and planted his, and then we found out about the Shoshone variety from UW, which is exclusively what I produce now.”
    Schneider says that he now has sainfoin seed customers from all over the United States, and he’s shipped as far as Virginia and New York.
    “It has to have well-drained soil, so in the East they plant it on hillsides,” he explains. “Dairy-oriented farmers have bought seed from me, as well as horse people, although your run-of-the-mill customer for sainfoin seed is the beef cattleman, who wants it for both grazing and haying – they like that they can use it either way.”
Practical application
    On his own operation, Schneider says he’ll start grazing his cows on sainfoin in a few weeks to prepare them for breeding.
    “The sainfoin has nice nutrition that helps them cycle well,” he says. “Then we’ll go back in another month-and-a-half and cut it for hay. After we hay once we let ours grow back for fall grazing, when we come off the mountain, because I have nowhere else to go with them.”
    Schneider adds that sainfoin can work at most elevations.
    “I have a guy who plants it at 7,000 feet, and he says it’s one of the few vegetations that actually does quite well up there,” he notes.
    Of stand replacement, Schneider says he’s had some sainfoin in for seven years, and he’s heard of stands that last 20 or 30 years, if they’re taken care of.
Wyoming research
    At the nearby Powell Research and Extension Center (PREC), Farm Manager Mike Killen has worked closely with the crop and with Schneider.
    “My involvement began with raising foundation seed for the Shoshone and Delaney varieties of sainfoin that were developed by the University of Wyoming,” says Killen.
    The Shoshone variety was released first, and thus it’s more popular, with more seed available. Delaney followed a couple years later, and Killen says it’s just now getting into seed growers’ hands and is gaining interest from growers.
    “Both varieties were released because they yielded better than the old varieties from the ‘70s,” says Killen. “Shoshone was released as a single-cut type, meaning it was better suited for dryland areas with springtime moisture, and most of its growth was on the first growth of the year, after which it would be hayed or grazed before going dormant later in the summer. Delaney regrows a little faster, and was released as a multi-cut type. However, in our trials Shoshone usually out-yields Delaney in an irrigated setting.”
    Killen isn’t aware of any UW research on any further varieties.  
    This year PREC research concerning sainfoin is looking into phosphorous, irrigation and herbicide.
    Of the irrigation study, Killen says that Powell is such a dry area that even most dryland crops need to be irrigated.
    “Sainfoin is suited for dryland areas, but it’s recommended for at least a 14-inch rainfall,” he says. “Sainfoin is susceptible to too much water – it’s not as tolerant to being overwatered as even alfalfa is – and we’re just starting the irrigation study.”
    Killen says the phosphorous study will determine whether different rates of application cause any response in the sainfoin.
Gaining ground
    “There has been a lot of recent interest in sainfoin in Wyoming, as well as in other states,” says Killen. “I think people are looking for an alternative to alfalfa, and sainfoin shows some promise, and with the new varieties more people are looking at it.”
    He adds that sainfoin is not a new crop to the Powell area.
    “It was introduced in the late ‘60s and ‘70s, when Montana State University did a lot of work with it,” he says. “It fell out of interest for a while, but in the last five years it’s had renewed interest.”
    For those who are interested in growing sainfoin, Killen says they should first look at soil type.
    “Sainfoin prefers well-drained, high pH soils, and how it will be managed also plays into the discussion,” he notes. “Sainfoin stand longevity usually isn’t as good as alfalfa, but that really depends on management and soil types.”
    “People are still suspicious, but on the same note it’s gained popularity because more and more people are having success, and are hearing about sainfoin through word-of-mouth,” says Schneider. “It’s all changed, and it’s a whole new game now. If I can make 300 acres work here – and I’m a rancher – anybody can make it grow.”
    Christy Martinez is managing editor of the Wyoming Livestock Roundup and can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Casper – The agriculture industry across the state of Wyoming has questioned the viability of industrial hemp following legalization of marijuana in Colorado, and the Wyoming Weed Management Rendezvous welcomed Colorado Department of Agriculture’s (CDA) Duane Sinning from the Colorado Department of Agriculture to their January meeting to discuss the many things he has learned over the past two years.

“Colorado Department of Agriculture handles pesticide use on all cannabis, and I can explain how our program works,” Sinning said.

CDA’s role

Per the legislation allowing Cannabis to be grown in Colorado, Sinning emphasized that CDA has jurisdiction over pesticide use on Cannabis but only has jurisdiction over cultivation in industrial hemp. The agency handles registration, compliance reports, inspection and sampling for industrial hemp.

“We establish rules for commercial production and research and development,” he continued. “We also set fees because the program is mandated to be self-funded.”

Rules require registrants to submit an application 30 days prior to planting. The application must also include GPS coordinates and a map showing the location of planting. Ten days after planting, applicants must also allow for inspection and sampling, including the associated fees.

Registration costs $500, plus five dollars per acre outdoors or 33 cents per 1,000 square foot indoors. Inspections cost $35 per hour, plus 25 cents a mile and $150 per sample taken.

In addition, Sinning said, “Those who elect to grow hemp have precluded themselves from growing marijuana on the land area they register to grow hemp.”

Introductory program

Sinning noted that in the first year, 2014, 252 applications to grow industrial hemp were submitted to CDA. Of those, 119 were for commercial production, and 133 were for research and development.

“They covered 1,811 acres, but the majority of those acres were never planted,” he said. “We estimated that 200 acres were harvested.”

The difference in acres on applications and actual planted acreage are a result from a lack of seed availability and lack of agronomic practices, but one of the biggest reasons was a desire by people who never intended to plant but wanted a certificate that said they could grow hemp for the first time after years of federal prohibition, Sinning explained.

For 2015, there were more than 165 applications, he said, with almost 3,800 acres outdoor production and 675,000 square feet of indoor space. All in all, around 2,200 acres of actual hemp was grown in 2015.

In addition, applicants for research and development went from 133 to 18 from 2014 to 2015, a reflection of how CDA defined registrations and the move to commercial registrations in the process.

Testing

“We test a significant portion of the acres,” Sinning said, noting that approximately 55 percent of acres were tested last year. “We also make an effort to verify that someone who tells us they didn’t plant is truthful. We check on those areas as well as areas we select for sampling.”

In addition, he noted that sampling for delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content had only an eight percent failure rate.

“When they failed the test, that means the plants had a THC content of higher than 0.3 percent,” Sinning explained. “In two years, only two have gone over one percent.”

If THC content exceeds 0.3 percent THC but is not over one percent, producers can get a waiver for violating the law if they destroy the crop on-site in a manner that is verifiable. The plant cannot enter the stream of commerce, and it must not be used for human consumption.

Samples of 90,000 square feet of indoor growing space showed a 96 percent pass rate.

“We have found that THC content outdoors is higher than that of plants grown indoors,” he said. “A big part of indoor production is starting young plants before taking them outside. Indoor production is also used for breeding new varieties and production of  cannabidiol (CBD) strains. ”

Changing program

Since the program started in 2014, Sinning commented that some changes have been seen.

“In 2014, many people didn’t know what they were doing,” he said, noting that experience growing cannabis illegally in basements didn’t translate well to large-scale production. “Very often growers were undercapitalized, as well.”

At the same time, outdoor production increased in 2015 by ten fold over 2014, and indoor production exploded.

“2015 has seen improved agronomic practices applied to the crop and investors and venture capitalist exploring the market opportunities,” he added.

“Greenhouse companies are seeing a boom,” Sinning commented.

He said that industrial hemp has a variety of uses, ranging from coffees and teas to insulation, body oils and ointments. Other textiles are also produced from hemp.

Learning experiences

Sinning noted that Colorado’s program is in its infancy, and it will continue to evolve as it moves forward.

“We will be starting variety trials to look at THC levels is different areas,” he said.

He added that every state has a very different Cannabis landscape based on laws, rules and regulations, as well as the environment.

“What we may be doing in Colorado may never work in Wyoming or anywhere else and vice versa,” Sinning said.

Pesticide regulations

The other major challenge that CDA has seen, he explained, is in pesticide regulations.

“Pesticides are regulated under federal and state laws using labeling,” Sinning explained. “It isn’t different from any other crop.”

However, Cannabis is particularly challenging because very few pesticides are labeled for use in Cannabis.

“There are some standards for tolerance or exempt for those crops intended for food,” he said. “Those standards are set by the Environmental Protection Agency according to the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. It defines how much residue can be left on or in the crop without posing a health threat.”

While a few pesticides have recently been labeled for use in hemp, nothing is labeled specifically for marijuana, Sinning continued, also noting that to date, no risk assessments have been conducted on pesticide use on Cannabis.

“EPA also requires a pyrolysis study to be conducted during risk assessments,” he said, explaining that the studies observe the impacts of burning.

Sinning also noted that the volume and variety of edibles containing Cannabis in Colorado create more concern. With edibles, the Cannabis is concentrated, meaning that any pesticide residues would also be concentrated.

“Pesticides can be used for products intended for human consumption only if expressly labeled for that use,” Sinning explained. “It has to have that label language, though.”

Future of cannabis

Looking to the future, Sinning noted that the program has thus far dramatically exceeded expectations, but he sees some potential for the crop.

“We’ve heard that hemp uses one-third to one-half the water that corn does,” he said, also noting that the local aspect of hemp production is appealing for many.

“I think there is room for discussion about the future of hemp,” Sinning said, “but this is a hard program to administer because of a lack of guidance from the federal government.”

Saige Albert is managing editor of the Wyoming Livestock Roundup and can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Park County sunflower producer Lyle Euelo says that sunflowers can be a very competitive crop with his area’s traditional crops of beans, malt barley and sugarbeets, and that he’s had good success with the confectionary crop.
“The difference in inputs between sugarbeets and sunflowers is that sunflowers take less than half – the seed doesn’t cost even close to beets, and you don’t have the tech fee,” he notes. “Your input costs are similar, and maybe a little higher, than barley.”
Sunflower growers in Euelo’s area have worked closely with Randy Violett of Powell’s UW Research and Extension Center. Violett has conducted variety trials and research to determine the technical details of producing the crop in Wyoming, including plant density, varieties and fertilization.
“Plant density will affect seed size,” says Violett. “The less dense the population, the more room there is for the seed head to grow, and the larger your seed will get.”
Violett says current recommendations call for 17,000 plants per acre. Euelo says he’s been planting between 17,000 and 18,000 plants per acre.
“Any lower, and you have a lot of big heads and more field loss because it’s difficult to harvest them,” he says. “You don’t want to go over 19,000 per acre, because your seed size and production will drop.”
Violett says growers should be aware of issues that could reduce the plant stand, like jackrabbits, antelope and deer.
“When the plants are just emerging they’re ripe for the picking, and they’ll never grow a seed head if they’re eaten off. A cooperator killed over 75 jackrabbits one evening on his place, and he estimated that in one year they cost him $25,000,” says Violett.
Although sunflower plates are available for planting, Violett says most growers use sweet corn plates.
“Our advice is to get silicone and fill every other hole to adjust the planter density,” he says. “Finger planters tend to work really well, and one of the biggest issues is worn seed tubes, where sunflowers can get caught.”
“Order small or medium seed, as they seem to emerge better than bigger seeds, in my experience,” says Euelo. “Sunflowers do not do well in cold soil. One time, about five years ago, at the end of May we got some cold weather that came in while the plants were germinating, and the sunflowers started to grow down into the soil, because they grow to wherever the warmer temperature is. Then they had a gooseneck when they did start coming up.”
Euelo says to plant one to two inches deep, with two inches being the absolute deepest.
“You really don’t want to go that deep. One-and-a-half to one-and-three-quarters inches are what we find works best. The seeds are nice and big, but they don’t have much push,” he says, adding that growers in the warm soils of Kansas and Colorado can plant them deeper than those in Wyoming.
Regarding herbicides, Violett says he’s tested many over several growing seasons. One thing he’s found out is that sunflowers are very sensitive to residue, and growers need to be mindful of what was applied to a field the previous year.
Euelo says he has a field that had a lot of nightshade, and he had treated it with Stinger.
“If you use Stinger, it’s best not to follow up with sunflowers,” he says. “Some will pull out of it and keep going and produce a nice head, but some don’t. The Stinger stays in the ground a long time, because in the same field I’ve rotated barley and come back to sunflowers and still had chemical reaction in some places, even though it’s been plowed twice.”
Violett says the dry bean strategy of pre-irrigating, planting into the moisture and then spraying the weed flush from that irrigation with glyphosate also works well with sunflowers.
Euelo says he fertilizes his sunflowers very similar to the way he’d fertilize malt barley, with at least 150 units of nitrogen to get a good yield.
“Test soils both shallow and deep,” he says. “Sunflowers have a good taproot, and a very aggressive surface root system, so they’ll mine some nutrients for you.”
Violett agrees, saying, “Sunflowers are scavengers, and they will go after nitrogen up to six feet deep. That’s one thing that’s really appealing about sunflowers – especially in a sugarbeet rotation – is that they can get down deep and get after the nitrogen.”
Euelo does add that sunflowers are very sensitive to salts, and can’t be treated like corn with fertilizer close to or on top of the seed.
“There’s no need to sidedress. I’ve done some of that, and research has found you might as well put all your fertilizer down up front, because they’ll do just as well,” he notes.
Cultivation can also be incorporated into weed management. Violett recommends cultivating at least twice, but says that some years that’s tough because of rapid growth.
“When they start to grow, you don’t have much time,” says Euelo. “They’ll be really slow starting out, but when it warms up and they take off, you better be on the ball.”
Euelo recommends not giving sunflowers too much water up front.
“Irrigate them after the second cultivation, unless they start to wilt or are in light, sandy soil,” he says. “Let them develop a taproot. Make sure your soil profile is full, and between bud stage and bloom is when you want to make sure they have plenty of water.”
For later irrigations, Euelo says he’s found it works best to move the water through quickly, avoiding the saturation given to barley or sugarbeets.
“What can happen is you might get sunflowers with a great big head, and if the ground’s all wet and a 60-mile-per-hour wind comes along they can fall over,” he says, noting that he doesn’t see that as much with the newer hybrids, which tend to be stronger.
Both Violett and Euelo recommend removing plants around gated pipe.
“Spray out the plants near irrigation ditches and gated pipes, because it’s not fun to change water when the heads are in the way,” says Euelo.
Now that there are over 1,000 acres of sunflowers in the area, Violett says growers are beginning to run into the need for pest control, including lygus bugs, which he says can be devastating, and the painted lady butterfly larvae.
Row crop heads are used to harvest the crop at 11 percent moisture, usually the end of October into November. In 2010 most contracts paid 26 cents per pound, while this year contracts will pay 30 cents, says Euelo.
“We have a lot of dry bean growers in the area, and if they know how to grow dry beans, they can grow sunflowers,” says Violett. “The management is very similar.”
Christy Martinez is managing editor of the Wyoming Livestock Roundup and can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..